Positive Potential

Program Overview

Developer(s)

Project Director is Donna Golob PATH, Inc. donna@pathblazer.org

Program Summary

The Positive Potential program is a whole-child program for middle school students. The curriculum is designed to reduce or delay sexual behaviors, reduce other risky behaviors including the use of alcohol, tobacco, and drugs, and promote positive youth development among largely white rural communities. The three-year program consists of five 45 to 50 minute sessions  per year, plus an end-of-the-year assembly designed to support existing health and physical education instruction. 

Target Population

The program was designed for middle school youth in predominately white rural communities; adaptations are available for more ethnically diverse communities. It has been evaluated with middle school youth.

Program Setting

The program was designed for and evaluated in a classroom-based setting for middle school youth.

Contact and Availability Information

For curriculum, materials, and pricing information, please contact:

For curriculum, materials, training, adaptation and pricing information please contact:
Donna Golob – Donna@PositiveTeenHealth.org or visit the website
http://www.positiveteenhealth.org/positive-potential.html

For training and support, please contact:

For curriculum, materials, training, adaptation and pricing information please contact:
Donna Golob – Donna@PositiveTeenHealth.org or visit the website
http://www.positiveteenhealth.org/positive-potential.html

Sample of curriculum available for review prior to purchase: Yes

Adaptation guidelines or kit available: Yes

Languages available: English

Program Components

Program Objectives

The goals of Positive Potential are to:

  1. Reduce the occurrence of sexual intercourse.
  2. Reduce the occurrence of other risky behaviors, such as peer violence and the use of alcohol, tobacco, drugs.
  3. Impact psychosocial factors related to positive youth development by focusing on positive school performance, parent-adolescent communication, positive goal orientation, and positive attitudes, knowledge and skills to enable risk reduction behaviors.

Program Content

The Positive Potential program is based on psychosocial theoretical models of planned change interventions for adolescents. The curriculum focuses on promoting attitudes, skills, and behaviors that support positive youth development. Health activities and exercises focus on avoiding risky behaviors, such as use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs, fighting, and bullying.

Program Methods

The program is delivered in group sessions in the classroom. Additionally, students participate in activities and readings about avoiding risk and promoting developmental health through take home "charges", and discussions with adults and peers.

Implementation Requirements and Guidance

Program Structure and Timeline

The 3-year program is delivered in five 45-50 minute classroom sessions on consecutive days, and one end-of-the-year class assembly per year.

Staffing

Classroom sessions are led by a male-female facilitator health education team. Facilitators may be school teachers or from outside organizations. All facilitators participate in a training program and practice teaching.

Program Materials and Resources

A complete Facilitator Manual is available that includes the theoretical framework, objectives, and a list of all materials needed for daily class sessions.  The facilitator guide is scripted, including student prompts to ensure program fidelity.  Also included is a flash drive with all necessary PowerPoint slides and videos as well as a copy of the student journal.

Additional Needs for Implementation

Not specified

Fidelity

The Facilitator Manual is designed to promote fidelity to the program.  Additionally, Facilitator and Classroom Fidelity Monitoring Tools are available from the developer.  Training from PATH staff prior to implementation is encouraged to ensure a higher level of fidelity to the program.   PATH can also provide an outline for the End-of-Year-Assembly. However, to ensure fidelity to the model, it is recommended that PATH be hired to present this portion of the program.  The assembly features a 3-screen production that may be difficult to implement with fidelity. 

Benchmark guidelines and evaluation of fidelity and implementation procedures (including surveys to be completed by students, school teacher, and the program educator) are available from ITMESA, LLC, Z. Harry Piotrowski (Email: zhp@sprynet.com).

Training and Staff Support

Staff Training:

All facilitators participate in a 2-day training program and teach-back sessions. Training includes a review of the theoretical framework and objectives of the program.  Instruction on how to follow the layout of the Facilitator Manual and practice with various demonstrations is also provided.

Technical Assistance and Ongoing Support:

PATH, Inc. provides support to organizations while they are providing services.

Allowable Adaptations

PATH, Inc. will work with organizations to ensure that the program meets the needs of the students and communities being served. Specific adaptations are allowable in consultation and collaboration with PATH, Inc.

Implementation Readiness Assessment

The review team conducted an independent assessment of the program’s readiness for implementation. This assessment is based on the team’s review of available program materials and documents. The team also requested input from program developers and distributors about the availability of implementation materials and resources.

On the basis of this assessment, the team calculated an implementation readiness score comprised of three component scores: (1) curriculum and materials, (2) training and staff support, and (3) fidelity monitoring tools and resources. The component scores are combined into a total score, which ranges from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating the programs most ready to implement.

Curriculum and Materials

Has defined curriculum with lesson plans and/or activities?Yes
Has defined core or required components?Yes
Has facilitator’s guide or instructions?Yes
Component Score3/3

Training and Staff Support

Formal pre-implementation training (by qualified trainers) available?Yes
Supplemental training or ongoing technical support available?Yes
Component Score2/2

Fidelity Monitoring Tools and Resources

Has defined logic model?Yes
Defines fidelity guidelines and benchmarks?No
Offers monitoring and evaluation tools?No
Component Score1/3

Total Implementation Readiness Score

6/8

Reviewed Studies

CitationHigh-Quality Randomized TrialModerate-Quality Randomized TrialModerate-Quality Quasi-experimentLow Study RatingDid Not Meet Eligibility Criteria

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2015

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016a

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016b

 Yes   

Notes

Some study entries may include more than one citation because each citation examines a different follow-up period from the same study sample, or because each citation examines a different set of outcome measures on the same study sample.

Study Characteristics

CitationSettingMajority Age GroupMajority Racial/Ethnic GroupGenderSample Size

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2015

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016a

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016b

In school: Elementary and middle schools13 or youngerWhiteBoth1,374

Notes

Some study entries may include more than one citation because each citation examines a different follow-up period from the same study sample, or because each citation examines a different set of outcome measures on the same study sample.

Information on study characteristics is available only for studies that received a high or moderate rating. Read the description of the review process for more information on how these programs are identified.

Study Findings

Citation Sexual Activity Number of Sexual Partners Contraceptive Use STIs or HIV Pregnancy

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2015

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016a

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016b

A mix of positive, null, and/or adverse impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain
CitationDetails

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2015

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016a

Piotrowski and Hedeker 2016b

This study evaluated the program with a clustered randomized controlled trial involving 14 elementary and middle schools in rural northwestern Indiana. Schools were randomly assigned within matched pairs to either a treatment group that offered the Positive Potential program or to a control group that offered their standard instruction. The Positive Potential program is a three-year program, offered in three middle school grades, where each grade level has a separate curriculum. Surveys were administered immediately before the program in 6th grade, and at three follow-ups: (1) about 12 months later at the start of 7th grade, (2) three months after the end of the three-year program, and (3) 12 months after the end of the program, in spring of 9th grade.

The study found that at the start of 7th grade, students in the schools that offer the program were statistically significantly less likely to report ever having sex (odds ratio = 0.28, confidence interval = 0.15 to 0.55) and to report having had sex in the previous three months (odds ratio = 0.21, confidence interval = 0.09 to 0.46). The study also found that a smaller proportion of male students in the schools providing the program reported ever having sex (odds ratio = 0.08, confidence interval = 0.04 to 0.16) and reported having had sex in the previous three month (odds ratio = 0.08 confidence interval = 0.03 to 0.21).

Those program effects persisted 12 months after the program ended, in spring of 9th grade: in schools that implemented Positive Potential, both the full sample of students and the subgroup of males were significantly less likely to ever have had sexual intercourse (odds ratio is 0.78 for the full sample and 0.67 for the subgroup of males) and to have had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months (odds ratio is 0.76 for the full sample and 0.65 for the subgroup of males). Twelve months after the end of the program, the subgroup of males in the schools implementing Positive Potential were significantly less likely to have had sexual intercourse in the last three months than their counterparts in the schools not implementing the program (odds ratio = 0.62).

Program impacts were also examined on having sexual intercourse in the past three month without using a condom and without using birth control at the start of the 7th grade and in the spring of 9th grade, and on the number of sexual partners in the spring of 9th grade. The study found no evidence of statistically program impacts on those measures at any of those follow-ups. The study also found no evidence of statistically significant program impacts on any sexual behavior outcome for the full sample at the follow-up conducted three months after the end of the program nor for the subgroup of female adolescents at any of the three follow-ups.

In the follow-up that occurred at the start of 7th grade, the study also examined program impacts on risky behavior during sexual intercourse in the previous three months, defined as either not using a condom, not using birth control, using drugs, or using alcohol during sex. Findings for this outcome were not considered for the review because they fell outside the scope of the review.

Notes

Some study entries may include more than one citation because each citation examines a different follow-up period from the same study sample, or because each citation examines a different set of outcome measures on the same study sample. A blank cell indicates the study did not examine any outcome measures within the particular outcome domain or the findings for the outcome measures within that domain did not meet the review evidence standards.

Information on evidence of effectiveness is available only for studies that received a high or moderate rating. Read the description of the review process for more information on how these programs are identified.