Piotrowski, Z. Harry and Don Hedeker. Evaluation of The Positive Potential Be The Exception Grade 6 Program in Predominantly Rural Communities: Findings from an Innovative Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program. Report to the Office of Adolescent Health, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, August 2015.

Piotrowski, Z. H., & Hedeker, D. (2016a). Evaluation of the Be the Exception sixth-grade program in rural communities to delay the onset of sexual behavior. American Journal of Public Health, 106, S132-S139. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303438

Piotrowski, Z. H., and Hedeker, D. Evaluation of Positive Potential Middle School Longitudinal Program in Rural Northwest Indiana Communities: Findings From an Innovative Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program. Report Prepared for Office of Adolescent Health,

Program Evaluated Positive Potential
Evidence of Effectiveness Yes
Study Rating and Explanation ModerateRandom assignment study with high attrition that that did not meet the criteria for a high rating but met all criteria for a moderate rating; findings show a positive, statistically significant impact for at least one behavioral outcome
Review Date October 2015

Program Information

Program Type

Sexuality education
Programs for special populations
Program Type is Youth development
Youth development

Program Length

Program Length is Fewer than 10 sessions Fewer than 10 sessions
10 to 20 sessions
More than 20 sessions

Evaluation Setting

After school/community-based
Health clinic
Elementary school
Evaluation Setting is In-school: Middle school Middle school
High school
Multiple settings
Specialized setting

Study Sample

Average Age Group

Average Age Group is 13 or younger 13 or younger
14 to 17
18 or 19

Majority Racial/Ethnic Group

African American
Majority Racial/Ethnic Group is White White


Gender is Both genders Both genders
Female only
Male only

Research Design

Assignment Method Cluster randomized controlled trial
Sample Size 1,374
Number of Follow-Ups 3
Length of Last Follow-Up 12 from BL

Study Findings

Sexual Initiation/Abstinence Mix of positive, null, and/or adverse impacts
Recent Sexual Activity Mix of positive, null, and/or adverse impacts
Number of Sexual Partners 0
Frequency of Sexual Activity Not measured
Contraceptive Use and/or Consistency 0
Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) or HIV Not measured
Pregnancy or Birth Not measured