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Becoming a Responsible Teen (BART)

Study Findings

Evidence by Outcome Domain and Study

Citation Sexual Activity Number of Sexual Partners Contraceptive Use STIs or HIV Pregnancy

St. Lawrence et al. 1995

Uniformly positive impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain A mix of positive, null, and/or adverse impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain

St. Lawrence et al. 1999

Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain

Butts and Hartman 2002

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

Malow et al. 2009

n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.

Robertson et al. 2011

Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain

The Policy & Research Group 2015a

Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain

Ruwe et al. 2016

Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain Uniformly null impacts across the outcomes examined in this domain
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Detailed Findings

CitationDetails

St. Lawrence et al. 1995

The program’s evidence of effectiveness was first established in a randomized controlled trial involving low-income African American adolescents recruited from a community-based health center in the southern United States. Study participants were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received the program or a control group that participated in a one-session program on HIV-AIDS education. Surveys were administered immediately before random assignment (baseline), immediately after the intervention, and 6 and 12 months after the intervention ended.

The study found that, averaged across the three follow-up surveys, adolescents who were assigned to the treatment group reported statistically significantly fewer occasions of unprotected oral and anal intercourse and more occasions of condom-protected intercourse. The study found no statistically significant program impacts measures of the number of sexual partners, number of occasions of unprotected vaginal intercourse, or number of occasions of condom-protected anal intercourse. For the 12-month follow-up survey, the study found that for subgroups of youth defined by sexual activity at baseline, those in the treatment group were statistically significantly less likely to have had sex in the past two months.

The study also examined program impacts on the percentage of intercourse occasions that were unprotected. Findings for this outcome were not considered for the review because they did not meet the review evidence standards. Specifically, the outcome was measured for a subgroup of youth defined by sexual activity at follow up.

The study also examined program impacts on measures of condom attitudes, AIDS knowledge, self-efficacy, assertion skills, and substance use. Findings for these outcomes were not considered for the review because the outcomes fell outside the scope of the review.

St. Lawrence et al. 1999

A subsequent study by the same group of researchers evaluated the effectiveness of the program among a different target population of incarcerated male adolescents. The study used a randomized controlled trial involving adolescents recruited from a state reformatory in the southern United States. The study randomly assigned participants to either a treatment group that received the program in six one-hour sessions over three weeks or a control group that received an anger management intervention. Surveys were administered immediately before random assignment (baseline) and again six months after study participants were released from the correctional facility.

The study found that at the time of the six-month follow-up survey, there were no statistically significant program impacts on measures of the frequency of unprotected and condom-protected sexual activity in the past three months, or on having had oral intercourse, the number of sex partners, or the percentage of intercourse occasions protected by condoms. These findings are not directly comparable with those reported in the prior study of the program (St. Lawrence et al. 1995) because of differences in the definition of the outcome measures and the analytic methods used to estimate program impacts.

Butts and Hartman 2002

This study received a low rating because it did not have an external comparison group.

Malow et al. 2009

This study did not meet the review eligibility criteria.

Robertson et al. 2011

This study evaluated an adapted version of the program designed for incarcerated adolescent females. The study used a cluster randomized controlled trial involving female adolescents recruited from a correctional facility in the southern United States. The study randomly assigned small groups of newly admitted detainees to either a treatment group that received the adapted program or a control group that received a health education curriculum. Surveys were administered immediately before the program started (baseline), immediately after the program ended, and nine months after participants were released from the correctional facility.

The study found that at the time of the nine-month follow-up survey, there were no statistically significant program impacts on measures of (1) the frequency of unprotected vaginal or anal sex or (2) the incidence of STIs (chlamydia and gonorrhea).

The Policy & Research Group 2015a

A more recent study evaluated the program using a randomized controlled trial that involved 850 adolescents recruited from youth summer employment programs in New Orleans. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received BART or a control group that received Healthy Living, a general health and nutrition program. The study collected outcome data before the program started (baseline) and six months after the end of the program.

Six months after the program ended, the study found no evidence of statistically significant program impacts on measures of frequency of sexual activity and inconsistency of condom use in the past three months.

Ruwe et al. 2016

A separate recent study evaluated a cultural adaptation of BART designed for Haitian teens living in the U.S. called Haitian-American Responsible Teen (HART). The study examined the effectiveness of HART using a randomized controlled trial that involved 552 youth of Haitian descent attending 9th through 11th grades in schools located in the greater Boston area. Adolescents were randomly assigned to either a treatment group that received the eight lessons of the BART curriculum plus two additional lessons as part of the adaptation—one lesson on anatomy and the other on post-traumatic stress disorder—or a control group that received a fitness and nutrition program. Surveys were administered before the program started (baseline), and again immediately, six, and 12 months after the program ended.

The study examined program impacts on ever having sex, having sexual intercourse in the past three months, and having sex without using a condom or using any birth control method in the past three months. Six months after the end of the program, the study found no evidence of statistically significant program impacts on any of the sexual behavior outcome measures that were examined.

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Notes

Some study entries may include more than one citation because each citation examines a different follow-up period from the same study sample, or because each citation examines a different set of outcome measures on the same study sample. A blank cell indicates the study did not examine any outcome measures within the particular outcome domain or the findings for the outcome measures within that domain did not meet the review evidence standards.

Information on evidence of effectiveness is available only for studies that received a high or moderate rating. Read the description of the review process for more information on how these programs are identified.

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